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Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière 15 January 1622 – 17 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor, and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature. His extant works include comedies, farces, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets, and more. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed at the Comédie-Française more often than those of any other playwright today. His influence is such that the French language itself is often referred to as the “language of Molière”. We update all data about Molière wiki, Molière Biography, how old is Molière and who is Molièrer from a reliable source and other updates maybe publish as soon as available.
|Molière Born||Jean-Baptiste Poquelin
15 January 1622
Paris, Kingdom of France
|Died||17 February 1673 (aged 51)
|Education||University of Orléans|
|Notable works||Tartuffe; The Misanthrope; The Learned Women; The School for Wives; L’Avare|
Marie Madeleine (1665–1723)
Born into a prosperous family and having studied at the Collège de Clermont (now Lycée Louis-le-Grand), Molière was well suited to begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abilities while he began writing, combining Commedia dell’arteelements with the more refined French comedy.
Through the patronage of aristocrats including Philippe I, Duke of Orléans—the brother of Louis XIV—Molière procured a command performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play by Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, The Doctor in Love, Molière was granted the use of salle du Petit-Bourbon near the Louvre, a spacious room appointed for theatrical performances. Later, he was granted the use of the theatre in the Palais-Royal. In both locations, Molière found success among Parisians with plays such as The Affected Ladies, The School for Husbands and The School for Wives. This royal favor brought a royal pension to his troupe and the title Troupe du Roi (“The King’s Troupe”). Molière continued as the official author of court entertainments.
Despite the adulation of the court and Parisians, Molière’s satires attracted criticism from churchmen. For Tartuffe’s impiety, the Catholic Church denounced this study of religious hypocrisy followed by the Parliament’s ban, while Don Juan was withdrawn and never restaged by Molière. His hard work in so many theatrical capacities took its toll on his health and, by 1667, he was forced to take a break from the stage. In 1673, during a production of his final play, The Imaginary Invalid, Molière, who suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, was seized by a coughing fit and a hemorrhage while playing the hypochondriac Argan. He finished the performance but collapsed again and died a few hours later.
Molière was born in Paris, the son of Jean Poquelin and Marie Cressé, the daughter of a prosperous bourgeois family. Upon seeing him for the first time, a maid exclaimed, “Le nez!”, a reference to the infant’s large nose. Molière was called “Le Nez” by his family from that time. He lost his mother when he was ten and he did not seem to have been particularly close to his father. After his mother’s death, he lived with his father above the Pavillon des Singes on the rue Saint-Honoré, an affluent area of Paris. It is likely that his education commenced with studies in a Parisian elementary school; this was followed with his enrollment in the prestigious Jesuit Collège de Clermont, where he completed his studies in a strict academic environment and got a first taste of life on the stage.
In 1631, Jean Poquelin purchased from the court of Louis XIII the posts of “valet de chambre ordinaire et tapissier du Roi” (“valet of the King’s chamber and keeper of carpets and upholstery”). His son assumed the same posts in 1641. The title required only three months’ work and an initial cost of 1,200 livres; the title paid 300 livres a year and provided a number of lucrative contracts. Poquelin also studied as a provincial lawyer some time around 1642, probably in Orléans, but it is not documented that he ever qualified. So far he had followed his father’s plans, which had served him well; he had mingled with nobility at the Collège de Clermont and seemed destined for a career in office.
In June 1643, when Molière was 21, he decided to abandon his social class and pursue a career on the stage. Taking leave of his father, he joined the actress Madeleine Béjart, with whom he had crossed paths before, and founded the Illustre Théâtre with 630 livres. They were later joined by Madeleine’s brother and sister.
Molière suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, possibly contracted when he was imprisoned for debt as a young man. One of the most famous moments in Molière’s life was his last, which became legend: he collapsed on stage in a fit of coughing and haemorrhaging while performing in the last play he had written, which had lavish ballets performed to the music of Marc-Antoine Charpentier and which ironically was entitled Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid). Molière insisted on completing his performance. Afterwards he collapsed again with another, larger haemorrhage before being taken home, where he died a few hours later, without receiving the last rites because two priests refused to visit him while a third arrived too late. The superstition that green brings bad luck to actors is said to originate from the colour of the clothing he was wearing at the time of his death.
Under French law at the time, actors were not allowed to be buried in the sacred ground of a cemetery. However, Molière’s widow, Armande, asked the King if her spouse could be granted a normal funeral at night. The King agreed and Molière’s body was buried in the part of the cemetery reserved for unbaptised infants.
In 1792 his remains were brought to the museum of French monuments and in 1817 transferred to Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, close to those of La Fontaine.
List of major works
- Le Médecin volant (1645)—The Flying Doctor
- La Jalousie du barbouillé (1650)—The Jealousy of le Barbouillé
- L’Étourdi ou les Contretemps (1655)—The Blunderer, or, the Counterplots
- Le Dépit amoureux (16 December 1656)—The Love-Tiff
- Le Docteur amoureux (1658), the first play performed by Molière’s troupe for Louis XIV (now lost)—The Doctor in Love
- Les Précieuses ridicules (18 November 1659)—The Affected Young Ladies
- Sganarelle ou Le Cocu imaginaire (28 May 1660)—Sganarelle, or the Imaginary Cuckold
- Dom Garcie de Navarre ou Le Prince jaloux (4 February 1661)—Don Garcia of Navarre or the Jealous Prince
- L’École des maris (24 June 1661)—The School for Husbands
- Les Fâcheux (17 August 1661)—The Mad (also translated The Bores)
- L’École des femmes (26 December 1662; adapted into The Amorous Flea, 1964)—The School for Wives
- La Jalousie du Gros-René (15 April 1663)—The Jealousy of Gros-René
- La Critique de l’école des femmes (1 June 1663)—Critique of the School for Wives
- L’Impromptu de Versailles (14 October 1663)—The Versailles Impromptu
- Le Mariage forcé (29 January 1664)—The Forced Marriage
- Gros-René, petit enfant (27 April 1664; now lost)—Gros-René, Small Child
- La Princesse d’Élide (8 May 1664)—The Princess of Elid
- Tartuffe ou L’Imposteur (12 May 1664)—Tartuffe, or, the Impostor
- Dom Juan ou Le Festin de pierre (15 February 1665)—Don Juan, or, The Stone Banquet (subtitle also translated The Stone Guest, The Feast with the Statue, &c.)
- L’Amour médecin (15 September 1665)—Love Is the Doctor
- Le Misanthrope ou L’Atrabilaire amoureux (4 June 1666)—The Misanthrope, or, the Cantankerous Lover
- Le Médecin malgré lui (6 August 1666)—The Doctor in Spite of Himself
- Mélicerte (2 December 1666)
- Pastorale comique (5 January 1667)—Comic Pastoral
- Le Sicilien ou L’Amour peintre (14 February 1667)—The Sicilian, or Love the Painter
- Amphitryon (13 January 1668)
- George Dandin ou Le Mari confondu (18 July 1668)—George Dandin, or the Abashed Husband
- L’Avare ou L’École du mensonge (9 September 1668)—The Miser, or, the School for Lies
- Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (6 October 1669)
- Les Amants magnifiques (4 February 1670)—The Magnificent Lovers
- Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (14 October 1670)—The Bourgeois Gentleman
- Psyché (17 January 1671)—Psyche
- Les Fourberies de Scapin (24 May 1671)—The Impostures of Scapin
- La Comtesse d’Escarbagnas (2 December 1671)—The Countess of Escarbagnas
- Les Femmes savantes (11 March 1672)—The Learned Ladies
- Le Malade imaginaire (10 February 1673)—The Imaginary Invalid